Remote Monitoring

Remote Monitoring

Introduction

Pandora FMS Network Server is an essential piece of Pandora FMS, because it allows remote checks to be conducted from a central point. Unlike the data server, the Network Server are carrying out the tasks they have been assigned through a multiprocess queue system. A network server can also work with other network servers (HA mode), balancing the load and working as backup in case another network server fails, taking care of the work the failing server was supposed to do.

remote-monitoring.jpg

Network Servers only work with assigned network modules. The Network Server must have complete visibility (IP addresses and ports) over the devices the tests are going to be performed on. However firewalls both at hardware and software levels may make this task more difficult, so you should pay a ot of attention to setting the appropriate secutiry measures to carry out your monitoring.

Besides the network server, there are many more additional Pandora FMS server subtypes that execute remote tests. This chapter will discuss network servers, remote plugin servers and servers that launch remote tests against Windows machines (WMI Server). Other servers that also process remote tests, as WEB test server (WEB Server or Goliat server), have specific documentation chapters.

Basic network monitoring

Pandora FMS Network Modules carry out remote monitoring tasks. The remote execution of tasks can be summarized in three blocks:

  1. ICMP Tests: Those are basic network tests that allow to find out whether a host is accessible and alive and the time it takes to get to that device through the network.
  2. TCP Tests: This test checks if a system has the TCP port open which was specified in the module definition. Additionally, a text string can be sent and it can wait to receive a specific response to check whether the communication is correct. This method allows simple protocol checks to be implemented and verification of whether the other end responds or not. For example, the GET / HTTP/1.0 string could be sent to check whether an HTTP server is alive, waiting to receive the 200 OK.
  3. SNMP Tests: It is possible to launch SNMP petitions remotely (called 'SNMP Polling') to systems that have their SNMP service activated to obtain data like: 'interface status' and 'consumed network bandwidth by interface', etc. There is a specific section in SNMP trap monitoring.

The network server is the one which carries out the different network tests assigned to each agent. Each agent is assigned to a Network Server - and it is this Network Server the one that executes the task and transfers the results to Pandora FMS DB.

General configuration of a module for network monitoring

To remotely monitor any kind of equipment or an equipment service (FTP, SSH, etc.), create the corresponding agent to monitor the service first.

When talking about creating an agent, it does not mean installing a software agent in the target machine., but creating an agent in the Pandora FMS interface.

Go to the Pandora FMS section for console administration and click on Resources > Manage agents:

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In the following screen, click on Create agent:

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Enter the proper data to define your new agent and click on Create:

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Once you have created the agent, click on the drop down menu of the modules. Select 'Create a new network module' in it and click on Create:

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Select a network component module in the following form, and when the drop-down menu on the right loads, select the desired check.

Example of Host Alive module creation

Host Alive is a simple simple check to find out whether a device is online by executing a ping.

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In Target IP add the target IP address. Once the module is defined, click Create.

The following screen will display the agent's modules, the pre-determined KeepAlive created with the agent and the recently added Host Alive module:

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The warning about the modules means that the module has not received any data yet. Once data start being received, the warning will disappear.

To see the data of the module you just added, click on the upper tab View and in there, go to the bottom where data will be shown once they are received:

keso.jpg

To add another type of network checks, proceed similarly to the previous one, but selecting another type of module.

ICMP Monitoring

The previous example was the one of ICMP monitoring. These are the more basic and simple checks which give us important and precise information. There are two kinds of ICMP checks:

  • icmp_proc, host (ping) check which allows to come to know if an IP address responds or not.
  • icmp_data or latency check. It basically tells us the time in milliseconds it takes to respond to an ICMP basic query.

TCP Monitoring

TCP is oriented towards connectivity so TCP Send will correspond to TCP Receive which indicates the status of a port or a service to be monitored. You may optionally send a text string and wait for an answer processed directly by Pandora FMS as a data.

TCP Send

Field to configure the parameters to be sent to the TCP port. To send several strings following the sequence forwarding/response, separate them with the character |; it admits the string ^M to replace it by the sending of a CR. Example:

GET / HTTP/1.0^M^M 

TCP receive

The field to configure the text strings which we expect to receive on the TCP connection. If they are sent/received in several steps, each step should be separated by the | character.

Example with Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) in an email server:

 R: 220 mail.supersmtp.com ...
 S: HELO myhostname.com
 R: 250 myhostname.com
 S: MAIL FROM: 
 R: 250 OK
 S: RCPT TO: 
 R: 250 OK
 S: DATA
 R: 354 Start mail input; end with .
 S: .......<your mail here>........
 S: .
 R: 250 OK
 S: QUIT
 R: 221 mail.supersmtp.com Service closing ...

The text string 250 OK is key in the three responses to check it works properly, so the according configuration is:

TCP Send

HELO myhostname.com^M|MAIL FROM: ^M| RCPT TO: ^M

TCP Receive

250|250|250

If the three first steps are 250 OK, then the SMTP is working properly. This could be used for any other protocol that uses plain text conversations.

Remote execution modules

Enterprise version.NG 741 version or higher.

  • Remote execution data
  • Remote execution data proc
  • Remote execution data string
  • Remote execution data inc

To be able to use those modules successfully, connection data of the agent intended to monitor is necessary. Therefore, register it in the **safe credential store**:

Example of new module creation in the network server:

For remote executions, the following types of data are valid:

  • remote_execution_data> numeric.
  • remote_execution proc> boolean (0 FALSE, different from 0 TRUE).
  • remote_execution_data_string> alphanumeric (string).
  • remote_execution_data_inc> incremental (ratio).

Define these:

  1. Target IP: Optionally the target IP (otherwise that of the agent will be used).
  2. Port: Optionally the port to connect to (22 in Linux, whatever in Windows).
  3. Command: The command to forward to carry out the monitoring process.
  4. Credential identifier: The credential set to be used for the connection.
  5. Target OS: Optionally the target OS (otherwise that of the agent will be used).

Example

The system will execute the command against the remote machine, receiving the number of files in the temporary work directory.

Example with alphanumeric data to see the command's literal output

The Target OS parameter can be configured to inherit the operative system of the agent that is beign targeted.

Result:

The module’s performance is the same when allocating alerts, generating events or viewing reports.

From Pandora FMS version 743 onwards, the following tokens related to remote execution modules parameters will be available in pandora_server.conf> ssh_launcher, rcmd_timeout and rcmd_timeout_bin.

Common Advanced Features of Network Modules

  • Custom ID: It allows to store an ID of an external application to facilitate the integration of Pandora FMS with third party applications. For example, a Configuration management database (CMDB).
  • Interval: The module's execution interval, which can be customized by an Admin user in a predefined way and then be used by standard users.
  • Post process: The module's post processing. It is useful to multiply or divide the returned value, e.g. when you obtain bytes and you want to show the value in Megabytes.
  • Min. Value y Max. Value: Any value under the minimum or over the maximum will be taken as no valid and will be discarded.
  • Export target: It is only available in Pandora FMS Enterprise Version, if you have configured an Export server

Cron

If Cron from is enabled, the module will be run once the current date and time match the date and time configured in Cron from, ignoring the module's own interval.

You may specify time periods in when the module will be executed; following the nomenclature: Minute, Hour, Month day, Month, Week day and there are three different possibilities:

  • Cron from It has Any set in all its fields, with no time restriction for monitoring.
  • If Cron from → some specific value and Cron to all in Any: It will be executed just when it matches the set number. E.g.: 15 20 * * * will only be executed everyday at 20:15.
  • Cron from → some specific value and Cron to → → some specific value: It will be executed during the set interval. E.g.: 5 * * * * and 10 * * * *, it will be executed every hour between minutes 5 and 10 (this is equivalent 5-10 * * * *).

Example, execute every Monday at 6:30:

Example, execute everyday between 6h and 7h:

For local modules, add the line module_crontab corresponding to the file agent configuration.

Timeout

Time the agent will wait for the execution of the module in seconds.

Category

This categorization has no effect on the normal user interface, it is intended to be used together with the Metaconsole.

SNMP Monitoring

Introduction to SNMP Monitoring

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), specified in RFC 3411 and RFC 3418 and published by the IETF, it works with synchronous and asynchronous operations:

  • SNMP polling: It is done once in a while actively and it implies making Pandora FMS execute a get command against an SNMP device. They are done by creating as usual network modules in Pandora FMS.
  • SNMP trap: It takes place with changes or events on the device, that may happen at any time or not (e.g. a fan stops working and the computer's temperature rises). It is necessary to activate the SNMP trap console in Pandora FMS, where those received by any device will be shown. Alerts may be defined through the trap filtering rules by any of their fields.

Pandora FMS works with SNMP using individual OIDs, where each OID is a network module. If you want to monitor a 24-port 'Cisco Catalyst' switch and find out the operating system and the entry and exit port, you have to define a total of 72 modules (24 x 3).

Steps required to work with SNMP

  • Activate device SNMP management so that from the network server SNMP queries may be made.
  • Know the IP and the SNMP community of the remote device.
  • Know the specific OID of the remote device (or use one of the multiple Pandora FMS wizards or its SNMP OID browser).
  • How to manage the data returned by the device. SNMP devices usually return data in different formats. Pandora FMS can manage almost all of them. Pandora FMS manages data of the 'counter' kind as como remote_snmp_inc. They are of special importance, since they are counters, they cannot be considered numeric data but element rate per second. The majority of SNMP statistical data are of the counter kind and it is necessary to set them as remote_snmp_inc if you want to monitor them properly.

Monitoring through Network Modules with SNMP

Pandora FMS includes some OIDs in its database that may be directly used. For example, when creating the module, select the Cisco MIBs component to see a list of OID checks translated available for Cisco:

Once you select this component, you may choose among the OIDs available for it and the fielsd will be filled in with the required information:

Click Create. To see the data from the recently created module click on the upper View tab, and in there go to the bottom, where an SNMP graph will be shown in real time with Graph (once data are received).

There are more MIBs included in Pandora FMS y in the Enterprise version MIB packages for different devices are included.

To be able to monitor any other element through SNMP, you shoul know what is SNMP community is. In module creation, select Manual setup:

In the Type field, there are three options for SNMP, when selecting one of them the form will get more extensive showing the additional fields for SNMP (here is a video tutorial for more information):

  • SNMP community: It is like a user identification or a password that allows access to an enrouter's statistics or those of any other device (SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c versions since SNMPv3 uses credential authentication). Devices have public community by default in read mode and usually each network administrator changes all community strings to custum values in the device's setup.
  • SNMP OID: The OID identifier to monitor. They can consist of numeric values and dots. These strings are translated automatically to more descriptive alphanumeric strings if the corresponding MIBs are installed within the system.

MIBs are definition collections that define the properties of the item managed within the device to be managed. It is not actually a database but it depends on implementation. Each SNMP computer provider has an exclusive section of the MIB's tree structures under control.

Example of an alphanumeric OID:

iso.org.dod.internet.private.transition.products.chassis.card.slotCps.cpsSlotSummary.cpsModuleTable.cpsModuleEntry.cpsModuleModel.3562.3

The numeric equivalent would be something like this:

 1.3.6.1.4.868.2.4.1.2.1.1.1.3.3562.3

SNMP monitoring from software agents

You may also remotely monitor from a software agent, which is generally used to obtain local data, however Pandora FMS presents flexibility in this and many other aspects.

In GNU/Linux®

snmpget is usually installed by default, so it can be called from the module_exec.

 module_exec snmpget -v <version> -c <community> <IP address> <numeric OID>

It is worth highlighting than only “basic” OIDs are translatable by its numeric equivalent, and it is advisable to always use numeric OIDs, since it is not known whether tool will know how to translate it or not. In any case, the MIBs can always be uploaded to the directory /usr/share/snmp/mibs.

Examples:

 module_begin
 module_name SNMP_if3_in
 module_type generic_data_inc
 module_exec snmpget -v 1 -c public 192.168.55.1 .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.3
 module_end
 module_begin
 module_name SNMP_Sysup
 module_type generic_data
 module_exec snmpget -v 1 -c public 192.168.55.1 DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance
 module_end

In MS Windows®

snmpget.exe (which makes up the project net-snmp, with BSD license) is added to the software agent together with basic MIBs, in addition to a wrapper or script for encapsulating the call.

The execution syntax is:

module_exec getsnmp.bat <comunidad_SNMP> <ip de destino> <OID>

Similarly to Linux, the MIBs can be uploaded to the directory /util/mibs.

Examples:

 module_begin
 module_name SNMP_if3_in
 module_type generic_data_inc
 module_exec getsnmp.bat public 192.168.55.1 .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.3
 module_end
 module_begin
 module_name SNMP_if3_desc
 module_type generic_data_string
 module_exec getsnmp.bat public 192.168.55.1 IF-MIB::ifDescr.3
 module_end
 module_begin
 module_name SNMP_Sysup
 module_type generic_data
 module_exec getsnmp.bat public 192.168.55.1 DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance
 module_end

MIB manager

Pandora FMS in a predetermined way uses the MIBs you can upload and manage the MIBS hosted by the OS in /usr/share/snmp/mibs. New MIBs can be added (and then managed) by means of the feature MIB uploader. These MIBs are just used by Pandora FMS and stored in the path {PANDORA_CONSOLE}/attachment/mibs.

capturamr2.jpg

This feature only manages the MIBs for Polling SNMP, in the case of the Trap SNMP check the chapter about SNMP trap monitoring.

Pandora FMS SNMP Browser

Enterprise version.NG 744 version or higher.

The SNMP browser performs a full run of the device's tree and said operation could take several minutes. It is also possible to run specific branches and shorten the route. To access it go to Monitoring > SNMP > SNMP Browser.

For example, to get Cisco® information only, you may explore your Cisco® enterprise sub-mib starting with:

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9

The browser is used to browse, which means clicking on each branch and obtain values. The system will ask for that information and will show the requested OID information (if available). If there is no information about the device OID, this is only displayed in numeric format. The OID descriptive information is stored through MIBs. If there is no MIB for the device you wish to explore, you may have to look for “pieces of information” throughout the information displayed by Pandora FMS, which is complex and takes time.

The SNMP browser allows to search for a text string both throughout the obtained OID values and the translated OID values (if available). It could be particularly helpful to look for known and specific strings and locate their OID. If it finds several entries, it will allow you to go from one occurrence to another and it will highlight them in yellow.

It is possible to select several OIDs and add them to an agent by clicking on Create agent modules. For that, the agents that will be monitored with said OIDs are selected and added to the box to the right. These modules will be created once you click Add modules.

You may also select several OIDs to add them to a policy using the “Create policy modules” button.

Select all policies where you wish to add module configuration of those OIDs. If you want to generate a new policy for those OIDs click on “Create new policy”.

Fill out the fields assigning a name, a group, a policy description and click on “Create policy”. Add them to the box on the right and click on Add modules to apply this configuration on policies.

To select an specific OID the “Create agent module” button is available from the OID detail. This button will allow to select a specific agent and will redirect to module creation within said agent with all the selected SNMP data.

From the SNMP module editor, when you create or edit a network module, you may launch the SNMP browser by clicking on “SNMP Browser”, which will open it on a floating window.

Once you choose the OID you were looking for, by clicking on the filter icon, choose that OID and it will appear automatically on the corresponding field of module definition to be used in your agent.

snmp_browser_from_module_creation.jpg

Pandora FMS SNMP Wizard

In the agent management view, there is a set of tools specifically created to create modules remotely: the agent wizard.

SNMP Wizard

Set the target IP, the community and other desired parameters (SNMP v3 is supported) to do an SNMP walk to the host.

Once the data is correctly retrieved, a form for module creation will appear:

It is possible to create modules from the following types of SNMP data through the SNMP Wizard:

  • Devices
  • Processes
  • Free Space on Hard Drives
  • Temperature Sensors
  • Other SNMP Data

You may select the kind of module and add the desired elements from the left combo to the right one. Once you have completed this process, click on Create modules.

This wizard will create two kinds of modules:

  • SNMP Modules for data with a static OID (sensors, memory data, CPU data, etc.).
  • Plugin Modules for data with a dynamic OID or calculated data (processes, disk space, used memory in percentage, etc).

For plugin modules, the remote SNMP plugin will be used. So if the plugin is not installed in the system, these features will remain disabled. The plugin must be named snmp_remote. pl. The location where it is hosted is not relevant.

For the SNMP wizard to be able to obtain data from an SNMP device thanks to the remote components, it is necessary to fulfill 2 requirements:

  • To have the Private Enterprise Number (PEN) of the device manufacturer registered in Pandora FMS.
  • To have the SNMP wizard components for the device manufacturer registered and enabled in Pandora FMS.

If the scanned device fulfills these requirements, all the modules from which data could have been obtained will be shown to give you the opportunity to select which one you want to create and which not.

These modules will be shown organized in blocks, based on the group the wizard component that generated them belongs to.

All the blocks will be shown compressed at first to make display easier. That way, they can be extended to modify selections or data. In addition, in each block where modules have been marked for creation, an informative icon will be displayed to indicate this.

If you deploy a block, you can choose which modules will be added and which will not, as well as the option of modifying the name, description or thresholds of each module individually.

Once you click on Create modules, a summary list of the chosen modules with their configuration will be displayed. In this list you will see the modules that could not be created, either because they already exist in the agent or because two or more modules with the same name have been configured in the wizard itself.

Bear in mind that if the value of the module collected by the wizard is **generic_data_inc** or **generic_data_inc_abs**, said value is not the increment itself but a referential value. To obtain an incremental value, two reads are necessary, for that reason the value of the module will indicate “zero” until the next reading is done.

Before adding them to the agent, there will be a last chance to verify the creation of said modules or to cancel it and keep on modifying the result of the wizard.

Once the module creation has been confirmed, it will be re-evaluated one by one whether they can be created or not, to avoid duplicating modules in case the same modules have been created by another means in the confirmation time frame.

You will be notified if the process was successfully completed or if there were any modules that could not be created.

SNMP Interface Wizard

In the Agent Wizard, there is an SNMP wizard specifically created for browsing interfaces. This Wizard browses the SNMP branch IF-MIB::interfaces, offering the possibility of creating multiple modules of different interfaces with multiple selections. After selecting the IP target, community, etc., the system directs an SNMP query to the host and fills out the module creation form.

Select one or more interfaces from the left combo. After that, their common available elements (e.g. description, speed, inbound/outbound traffic, etc.) will appear on the right. You may select one or more elements from this combo and click on Create modules to create these modules for each selected interface in the combo on the left.

For the SNMP interface wizard to obtain data from an SNMP device, the SNMP device must return data from the branch IF-MIB.

You will see an introductory general configuration block for all the selected interfaces of the device with the possible modules to add. The modules that are selected in this block and their thresholds will be the default configuration that will be added for network interfaces. This block could be disabled in order not to add general monitoring to the interfaces.

There will also be a specific block for each network interface, which you may select to indicate that the interface should be monitored. If, in addition, in the previous block, a general monitoring has been configured, all the checked interfaces will take those configurations.

In each interface block, you may also indicate specific configurations for the interface, that is, add specific modules not included in the general monitoring block, or overwrite those configurations with a different one for a particular case. You may also modify the names and descriptions of the modules for each specific case. It is necessary that the interface block is marked for monitoring, so the specific configurations will take effect.

All the blocks will be shown compressed at first to make their display easier. That way, they can be extended to modify selections or data. In addition, in each block where modules have been marked for creation, an informative icon will be displayed to indicate it.

Once you click on Create modules, a summary list of the chosen modules with their configuration will be shown. In this list you will see the modules that cannot be created, either because they already exist in the agent or because 2 or more modules with the same name have been configured in the wizard.

In spite of all the modifications you do, before they are added to the agent, there will be a last chance to confirm the creation of these modules or to cancel it and keep on modifying the wizard result.

Once the creation of the modules has been confirmed, they will be re-evaluated one by one to check whether they can be created or not, to avoid duplicate modules in case the same modules have been created by another means in the confirmation time frame.

You will be notified if the process was successfully completed or if there were any modules that could not be created.

Windows remote monitoring with WMI

WMI is a Microsoft system for obtaining remote information from computers running Windows OS. It is available from Windows XP version to the most current versions. WMI allows you to get all kinds of information from the OS, applications and even hardware. WMI queries can be made locally (in fact, Pandora FMS agent does it internally, calling the API of the operating system and asking the WMI subsystem) or remotely. In some systems, remote access to WMI is not enabled and must be enabled in order to be consulted from the outside.

Pandora FMS allows remote monitoring of Windows equipment through WMI queries. To do this, it is be necessary to enable the wmiserver component in the Pandora FMS server configuration file.

 # wmiserver : '1' or '0'. Set to '1' to activate the WMI server in this setup.
 # DISABLED BY DEFAULT
   wmiserver 1

Queries are made in WQL, a kind of Microsoft-specific SQL language for internal queries to the operating system, and any query that appears in the WMI system database can be made.

To start monitoring through WMI, first create the corresponding agent, and once ready, click on the top flap of the modules (Modules). Then, select the option to create a new WMI module and press the Create button.:

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Some fields are WMI specific and require a short explanation:

campos.jpg

  • Namespace: Space for WMI names. This field is different from 'empty string' by default and depends on the information source of the application intended to monitor.
  • Username: Name of the Administrator or any other user which has been granted the privileges to remotely execute WMI queries.
  • Password: Password for the Administrator or any other user.
  • Key string: Optional, field to compare with the string returned by the query, and if the module exists, it returns 1 or 0, instead of the string itself.
  • Field number: The number of the field returned starting by 0 (WMI queries can return more than one field). Most of the times it is 0 or 1.
  • WMI Query: WMI query, similar to a SQL sentence.

WMI Query examples:

 SELECT LoadPercentage from Win32_Processor WHERE DeviceID = "CPU0"
 SELECT SerialNumber FROM Win32_OperatingSystem
 SELECT AvailableBytes from Win32_PerfRawData_PerfOS_Memory
 SELECT DiskWriteBytesPersec from Win32_PerfRawData_PerfDisk_PhysicalDisk WHERE name = "_Total"

If you do not know the exact parameters, you may also select one of the preinstalled ones included in the Pandora FMS Database. Therefore, select the WMI module component:

galleta.jpg

Once you have done that, select a WMI check from one of the available ones:

galletita.jpg

The required information is filled out automatically, except for the user and its password. Please remember that only users with administration permissions and their passwords are valid here. Otherwise, the module cannot return any value:

otro.jpg

The Pandora FMS Enterprise version owns more than 400 WMI Remote Monitoring Modules for Windows. They are available for the following devices and components:

  • Active Directory
  • BIOS
  • System Information
  • Windows Information
  • Printers
  • MSTDC
  • IIS
  • LDAP
  • Microsoft Exchange

WMI Wizard

Under the Agent Wizard feature shown on the picture below, there is a WMI wizard which is intended to browse and create modules with WMI queries on a specified agent:

You will need to specify the Administrator (or a user with WMI query permissions) user and password on the target server to make the first WMI queries. This information will be used to create modules.

It is possible to create modules from different kinds of WMI data through the WMI Wizard:

  • Services: It creates boolean monitors in 'normal' status if the service is running and in 'critical' when it is shut down.
  • Processes: The process monitor will only receive any data if the process is active, otherwise it will be on 'unknown' status.
  • Free space on disk The available space on the hard drive.
  • WMI components: It will choose from the WMI components registered on the system (they are found under 'Administration' → 'Manage modules' → 'Network components').

It must have WMI wizard Pandora FMS components registered and enabled: that way all modules from which data could be obtained will be displayed to have the oportunity to create them or not.

These modules will be shown organized in blocks based on the group the wizard component that generated them belongs to.

All blocks will be shown compressed at first to make visualization easier. That way, they can be expanded to modify the selections or data. In addition, in each block where modules have been marked for creation, an informative icon will be displayed to indicate this.

If you deploy a block, you may choose which modules will be added and which will not, as well as modify the name, description or thresholds of each module individually.

Once you click on Create modules, a summary list of the chosen modules with their configuration will be displayed. In this list you will see the modules that could not be created, either because they already exist in the agent or because two or more modules with the same name have been configured in the wizard itself.

In spite of all the modifications that you do, before they are added to the agent, there will be a last chance to confirm the creation of these modules or to cancel it and keep on modifying the wizard result.

Once module creation is confirmed, they will be re-evaluated one by one to check whether they can be created or not, to avoid duplicated modules if during the confirmation time lapse the same modules have been created by other means.

The wizard will notify whether the process was successfully created or if on the contrary there was any module that could not be created.

Monitoring with server remote plugins

A remote plugin is a script or executable file that supports parameters and returns a single value. The result could be a number, a boolean value (0 error, > 0 OK), or a text string. A remote plugin usually allows input parameters. There are several server plugins installed by default and they are ready to use, bu the user may always adds more if they need so.

There are two types of remote plugins: standard type and Nagios type. The difference is that Nagios remote plugins respond with and error level and in addition with a descriptive string.

Remote plugin management

verdecito1.jpg

Click on manage servers and then manage plugins and a new window will open:

verdecito2.jpg

By clicking on one of them or creating a new one, the following dialogue will open:

plugin_create_1.jpg

Plugin Type Allows setting whether it is standard or Nagios. Max. Timeout to fix the waiting time for its execution. Pay special attention to this value since it has to provide enough time for execution, otherwise you will not get any values.

In the execution of a plugin, there are three timeouts: server, plugin and module. Please note that the server prevails over the others, and secondly, the plugin. That is, if you have a server with a 10-second timeout and a plugin with a 20-second timeout and a module that uses that plugin with a 30-second timeout, the maximum time to wait for the execution of that module will be 10 seconds.

The description field is important since it will be seen in a plugin use interface by the user, make sure you choose a descriptive but short one. The following image shows a practical example.

macro_editor2.jpg

Essential configuration values:

plugin_create_2.jpg

  • Plug-in Command: Path where the plugin is located, by default in directory /usr/share/pandora_server/util/plugin/. If you use your own plugin, make sure it has run permissions (chmod 755).
  • Plug-in parameters: It allows setting parameters separated by spaces in addition to macro fields _field1_ _field2_ … _fieldN_. These macros will appear as text fields in the module configuration so that the user abstracts the complexity of using a plugin module. This allows the user to fill in the script call parameters without having to know how it works or the way to call it.

Each macro has 3 fields:

  • Description: A short label next to the field.
  • Default value: The default value assigned to the field.
  • Help: A text with an explanation of the macro, to show some examples of use or better explain what that field is for.
Internal Macros

Like the alerts, it is possible to use internal macros in the plugin configuration, too. The supported macros are:

  • _agent_ or _agentalias_> Alias of the agent the module belongs to.
  • _agentname_> Name of the agent the module belongs to.
  • _agentdescription_> Description of the agent the module belongs to.
  • _agentstatus_> Current status of the agent the module belongs to.
  • _address_> Address of the agent the module belongs to.
  • _module_> The module's name.
  • _modulegroup_> The module's group name.
  • _moduledescription_> A description of the module.
  • _modulestatus_> The status of the module.
  • _moduletags_> The module's associated tags.
  • _id_agent_> The ID of the agent. It is quite useful to generate a direct URL to redirect to a Pandora FMS console webpage.
  • _id_module_> The module's ID.
  • _policy_> The name of the policy the module belongs to (if that applies).
  • _interval_> The execution interval of the module.
  • _target_ip_> The target IP address of the module.
  • _target_port_> The target port number of the module.
  • _plugin_parameters_> The plug-in parameters of the module.
  • _email_tag_> The emails associated to module tags.

A remote plugin from the inside

 #!/bin/bash
 # This is called like -p xxx -t xxxx
 HOST =$4
 PORT =$2
 nmap -T5 -p $PORT -sU $HOST | grep open | wc -l

This GNU/Linux plugin takes two parameters, the UDP port to test -p and the destination address -sU. When registering the plugin you have defined two macros, one for the port and another for the IP so that when the user is going to create a plugin module it only sees that, nothing else.

Once the plugin has been registered, in order to use it in an agent, you must create a plugin server module, click on the top tab of the modules (“Modules”). There, select create a new network module and click on Create:

trescientos1.jpg

Specify the Target IP and Port to which the analysis must be performed, select the type of module generic numeric to get a numeric value and fill in the rest of the necessary fields.

Once you have finished, press the Create button.

udp_port_check_demo.jpg

Example #1 : Plugin Module for MySQL

MySQL us a database engine for which Pandora FMS has created a default plugin to be customized by each client for their users. To the end go to AdministrationManage serversplugins and add a new plugin module for MySQL:

This plugin provides four checks that are fully transparent for the user (as seen later) from the moment it is started:

  • -q Com_select> Number of select reading checks.
  • -q Com_update> Number of update writing checks.
  • -q Connections> Number of connections.
  • -q Innodb_rows_read> Innodb line reading.

In the following step notice the plugin's default location and the four parameters to carry out the previously indicated checks:

Configuration of the first and second parameters (IP address and username): Configuration of the first and second parameters (IP address and username)

Configuration of the third and fourth parameters (user password and SQL query): Configuration of the third and fourth parameters (user password and SQL query)

The resulting plugin will be as follows:

Create a module in the agent of the computer where Pandora FMS is installed and assign it; its name will be Mysql Connections, using as plugin “MySQL”, as IP localhost, as user pandora, as password the password of Pandora FMS database, and as check the word Connections.

After its creation, it should look like this:

Once created, it will appear in the list of modules, as a plugin type module (in this case, yet to be initialized)

fosforo3.jpg

Example 2 SMTP Server Remote Plugin Module

This plugin sends an email using a remote server, it returns 1 if it works and 0 if it fails(generic_proc type). Notice the help text that appears for Parameters in the pluginand Optional parameters at the lower right corner.

The following parameters must be set in the module's configuration when using the plugin:

Example 3 - DNS Server Remote Plug In

This plug returns the IP address of a specified domain queried to a specific DNS, it returns 1 if it works properly and 0' if not (generic_proc data).

Anothe additional monitoring would be to check whether all IP addresses that the DNS seturns actually belong to the queried domain, that is achieved by comparing a previous and predetermined IP range.

Custom field macros for remote monitoring

When configuring remote modules, having to enter agent-specific configuration options multiple times can quickly become tedious (e.g., an SNMP community string). Custom field macros allow you to use agent custom fields as macros for certain module configuration options.

In the following example, an SNMP network component that can be reused across SNMP agents with different community strings will be created:

  • First, go to Resources/Custom fields in your Pandora FMS Console and define a new custom field that will be used to store the SNMP community string. Write down its ID, since it will be part of the macro later, and fill in the appropriate community string in your SNMP agents.

Field 11 added, "SNMP Community"

  • Then create a new SNMP network component and enter _agentcustomfield_<n>_ as the SNMP community string, where n is the ID of the custom field (in our example, _agentcustomfield_11_).

  • Finally, configure a module using the newly created network component. The module will start working automatically.

Custom field macros work with SNMP, WMI, plug-in and inventory modules. They can be used in standalone modules, network components and policy modules.

Another example: For a WMI module, you could analogously define two new custom fields to store the username and the password, and use the corresponding custom field macros in the module definition.

Remote wizard and network test execution (Exec Server)

Just for Pandora FMS servers installed on GNU/Linux.

This feature allows some actions to be run on Pandora FMS remote servers from the Pandora FMS Console. Thus, allowing the use of the agent SNMP Wizards, MIBs' browser and event responses from a remote server, as well as accessing it from the server where the console is. Internally, it works through SSH remote command execution from the Pandora FMS console to the enabled servers, which will be called “Exec Server”. These servers can be Pandora FMS servers or Satellite Servers.

Configuration

It is a logic agent already created and with remote configuration enabled it will be set that a user (for example, “apache”), by means of a pair of digital keys created (public and private), may access a remote device where the public key has been hosted and configured. When finishing, you will have configured an SSH connection for. monitoring automated precesses.

If remote cofiguration is not enabled, satellite modules creation through wizards will not be available.

1. From Pandora FMS server list, select one to work as Exec server and edit it:

exec-server-111.jpg

2. Activate “Exec Server” checkbox. Enter the and the server's IP address where the desired commands will be launched. This option can be configured on the Network Server and/or Satellite Server.

Since configuration is not finished yet, connection test will fail.

3. For the “apache” user example (or equivalent) to have an execution shell, the server where Pandora FMS console is executed must be enabled. In the /etc/passwd file, modify the following line so that the user has a valid shell:

 
apache:x:48:48:Apache:/var/www:/bin/bash

4. The .ssh directory will be created in the /var/www/ path and permissions for the “apache” user will be granted:

 mkdir /var/www/.ssh
 chown apache /var/www/.ssh

5. Now work as root to generate the pair of keys:

 su apache
 ssh-keygen

Accept the default values by clicking “enter”, and you will see something like this:

exec-server-3.jpg

Notice and bear in mind where and which names have to key files created. This is important for your security, in addition to ne necessary for one of the coming steps.

7. Before accessing “Exec server” by SSH (which will be a Pandora FMS server or a Satellite server), create on that machine a specific user, called pandora_exec_proxy and also create the pandora_exec_proxy folder:

sudo useradd pandora_exec_proxy -m
mkdir /home/pandora_exec_proxy/.ssh/

Do not set a password so that the user only gets authenticated through the public and private key, that way you get a higher degree of security.

8. Copy the contents of the public key, generated in the previous step, from the Pandora FMS console to the “exec server” server. In order to do this, copy the contents of the /var/www/.ssh/id_rsa.pub file (by copying and pasting that content) to the /home/pandora_exec_proxy/.ssh/authorized_keys file and change that file's permissions:

chown -R pandora_exec_proxy /home/pandora_exec/.ssh/

9. Once the user is created, from the machine where the console is running, and through the “apache” user, execute the following command manually to verify that you can log in without entering a password (replacing <ip_address> with the value configured in step 2):

ssh [email protected]<ip_address>

10. When all these steps are correct, edit (in the console) the /etc/pass file in order to leave the apache user without login (only invoked if it is root, see step 5):

apache:x:48:48:Apache:/var/www:/sbin/nologin

11. Finally, test the configuration in the editing section of your proxy server, within Pandora FMS console, and if the test indicator turns green, it will be fully operational and functional.

Using the exec server feature

From now on, in the MIB browser, in agent SNMP wizard and event responses, you may choose from where you will launch the request, whether from the local console or from the configured Exec server:

exec-server-555.jpg

And the same goes for the WMI Wizard, the SNMP interfaces one and SNMP agent wizard (not available for satellite servers)

exec-server-666.jpg

Depending on the selected server, when launching the Wizard, adapted modules for satellite server or server will be created. In the satellite server case, write the modules in the remote configuration file so that they can be executed by the server.

For executing “event response”, firstly configure a new event response that uses the new exec server:

exec-server-777.jpg

And then, launch it from an event:

exec-server-8.jpg

Path monitoring

Pandora FMS offers by default complete path monitoring between two network points, visually indicating the path that is being followed at all times to communicate between these two points.

To use this system you need:

  • A software agent at the point of origin of the route you want to analyze
  • Being able to reach the destination point via ICMP from the point of origin.

The Pandora FMS path analyzer uses an agent plugin to map the route. This agent plugin uses several methods to collect information, reporting structured information to Pandora FMS server.

Optionally, if you want to scan paths over the Internet, it is recommended that you deploy the MTR application on your path source computer.

Configuration

Version NG 715 or higher

Go to the plugin configuration tab in your agent and add the following line:

route_parser -t <direccion_objetivo>

Where <target address> may be an IP v4 address or an FQDN domain name.

  • Activate plugin execution

Note

If you use an agent version previous to NG 715 first:

  • Download the plugin for path analysis of the module library.
  • Transfer the plugin to your software agent through collections (or copying manually the file, see the following picture):

Display

Once the system is configured and reporting, a new tab will appear in the agent view with the path communications have followed to reach the target:

Sample route view to a machine on a network other than the source network (LAN connections)

Sample route to 8.8.8.8.8 example view (Google's DNS) (WAN connections)

Go back to Pandora FMS documentation index